This article has two goals. The first is to present some of the foundational texts demonstrating the divinity of Jesus Christ. An exhaustive presentation would take too long! The second goal, which will be addressed second, is to give an answer the most common objections to this truth.
Note on the Divine Name:
The name Yahweh or Jehovah comes from YHWH, which is the Hebrew root “to be.” In second century BC Jews stopped saying the Divine Name out of reverence and replaced it with Adonai, which means “the LORD.” In the New Testament it was always written in Greek as Kyrios which is translated as LORD or Lord in modern bibles. The name YHWH is not found in any ancient copies of the New Testament. God speaking of Himself in the first person in Exodus 3:14 says, “I am” as His name.
John the Baptist
Jesus identifies John the Baptist as the prophesied voice crying out in the wilderness to prepare the way of the LORD. Whom did John the Baptist prepare the way for? He prepared the way for Jesus.
“For this is the one referred to by Isaiah the prophet, saying, ‘The voice of one crying in the wilderness, ‘Make ready the way of the Lord, make His paths straight!”’ Matthew 3:3
“This is the one about whom it is written, ‘Behold, I send My messenger before Your face, who will prepare Your way before You.'” Matthew 11:10
The first verse is a quote from Isaiah 40.
“A voice cries:“In the wilderness prepare the way of the LORD; make straight in the desert a highway for our God. Every valley shall be lifted up, and every mountain and hill be made low;the uneven ground shall become level, and the rough places a plain. And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together, for the mouth of the LORD has spoken.”” Isaiah 40:3-5
The prophecy of Isaiah doesn’t talk about the coming of a human messiah. It talks about the coming of the LORD God. It says the glory of the LORD shall be revealed and seen by men. The Gospel of John says;
“And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we have seen his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth. (John bore witness about him, and cried out, “This was he of whom I said, ‘He who comes after me ranks before me, because he was before me.’”” John 1:14-15
Jesus is the LORD that John was announcing and preparing a way for. It is Jesus’ glory which Isaiah prophesied would be revealed.
In Matthew 11:10 Jesus is identifying John as the messenger of Malachi 3:1. That makes Jesus the one who is coming.
“Behold, I send my messenger, and he will prepare the way before me. And the Lord whom you seek will suddenly come to his temple; and the messenger of the covenant in whom you delight, behold, he is coming, says the LORD of hosts.” Malachi 3:1
In the Old Testament prophecy God identifies Himself as the one who is coming. Jesus puts Himself in the place of the LORD God as the one who has come. Malachi says that the Lord will go into his temple, and Jesus does go into the earthly temple. When the first temple was built, it was to house the ark of the covenant, and to be God’s dwelling on earth.
“I have indeed built you an exalted house, a place for you to dwell in forever.” 1 Kings 3:18
But Jesus calls His own body the true temple.
“So the Jews said to him, “What sign do you show us for doing these things?” Jesus answered them, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.” The Jews then said, “It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and will you raise it up in three days?” But he was speaking about the temple of his body. When therefore he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this, and they believed the Scripture and the word that Jesus had spoken.” John 2:18-22
Jesus’ body is the true temple because He is God made man. As Paul later wrote;
“For in him the whole fullness of deity dwells bodily,” Colossians 2:9
The Gospel of John
The Gospel of John introduces Jesus as “the Word,” explicitly calling Him God, and the creator.
“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made.” John 1:1-3
“I AM” statements of Jesus
God revealed Himself to Moses this way;
“God said to Moses, “I am who I am.” And he said, “Say this to the people of Israel: ‘I am has sent me to you.’”” Exodus 3:14
Jesus makes many “I am,” statements in the Gospel of John (6:35; 8:12; 8:58; 10:9; 10:11-14; 11:25; 14:6; 15:1-5; John 18:6), most explicitly at John 8:58.
“So the Jews said to him, “You are not yet fifty years old, and have you seen Abraham?” Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I am.” So they picked up stones to throw at him, but Jesus hid himself and went out of the temple.”
They tried to put him to death, because He claimed to be God, taking the Divine Name to Himself.
Isaiah’s Theophany (Vision of God)
“Though he had done so many signs before them, they still did not believe in him, so that the word spoken by the prophet Isaiah might be fulfilled:
“Lord, who has believed what he heard from us,
and to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?” Isaiah 53:1
Therefore they could not believe. For again Isaiah said,
“He has blinded their eyes
and hardened their heart,
lest they see with their eyes,
and understand with their heart, and turn,
and I would heal them.” (Isaiah 6:9-10)
Isaiah said these things because he saw his glory and spoke of him. Nevertheless, many even of the authorities believed in him, but for fear of the Pharisees they did not confess it, so that they would not be put out of the synagogue.” John 12:37-42
“Although he had performed so many signs…” refers to Jesus. “All the same, many even of the rulers actually put faith in him,” again refers to Jesus. To Whom is it referring when the text says, “Isaiah said these things because he saw his glory, and he spoke about him.”? Again, the answer is Jesus.
At the start of the quoted section of the book of Isaiah we read;
“In the year that King Uzziah died I saw the LORD sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up; and the train of his robe filled the temple. Above him stood the seraphim. Each had six wings: with two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew. And one called to another and said: “Holy, holy, holy is the LORD of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory!” Isaiah 6:1-3
Isaiah even went on to say;
“Then I said: “Woe to me! I am as good as dead, For I am a man of unclean lips, And I live among a people of unclean lips; For my eyes have seen the King, the LORD of armies himself!”” Isaiah 6:5
Isaiah 6 speaks of how Isaiah saw the glory of the LORD God, and the Gospel of John 12 says this vision was of Jesus. This makes sense, because the Gospel of John previously stated that; “Not that any man has seen the Father, except the one who is from God; this one has seen the Father.” John 6:46 Therefore, Isaiah did not see the glory of God the Father, He saw God the Son.
Thomas’ Confession of Faith
At the climax of John’s Gospel, the resurrection account, formerly doubting Thomas proclaims His faith in the resurrected Jesus by saying, “My Lord and My God.”
“Then he said to Thomas, “Put your finger here, and see my hands; and put out your hand, and place it in my side. Do not disbelieve, but believe.” Thomas answered him, “My Lord and my God!” Jesus said to him, “Have you believed because you have seen me? Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed.”” John 20:27-29
Equality With God
At John chapter 5, the Jews accuse Jesus of violating the command to avoid work on the sabbath by healing a man on the sabbath. Jesus makes a shocking statement which the Jews understood fully.
“And this was why the Jews were persecuting Jesus, because he was doing these things on the Sabbath. But Jesus answered them, “My Father is working until now, and I am working.” This was why the Jews were seeking all the more to kill him, because not only was he breaking the Sabbath, but he was even calling God his own Father, making himself equal with God.” John 5:16-18
Jesus states that God the Father works on the sabbath, and so does He. He is above the commandment to abstain from work on the sabbath, because He is not subject to it as the Divine Son of God. Scripture plainly states, “he was even calling God his own Father, making himself equal with God.”
The Only Begotten & Creator
At times, men and angels are called sons of God in scripture. An example is Galatians 3:26 or Job 1:6. But scripture says that Jesus is the “only begotten.”
“For God so loved the world, as to give his only begotten Son; that whosoever believeth in him, may not perish, but may have life everlasting.”
This is in distinction even to the angels, who cannot be called begotten.
“For to which of the angels did God ever say, “You are my Son, today I have begotten you.”?” Hebrews 1:5.
Men can be called sons of God by the adoption of God’s grace (see Romans 8:15) or by analogy, because God is the creator. Angels can be called sons of God by analogy, because they are created by God. But John 1, Hebrews, 1, Colossians 1 all say that Jesus Himself is the creator. John 1 says he came forth from the bosom of the Father. Other things were created from nothing. But Jesus comes forth from the Father and shares his uncreated nature. It is in this way that He is the only begotten. Because Jesus shares the same Divine nature as His Father, He is God. Jesus can only be the creator of all things if He Himself is uncreated.
“I am the Lord, your Holy One, the Creator of Israel, your King.” Isaiah 43:15
“This is what the LORD says, your Repurchaser, Who formed you since you were in the womb:“I am the LORD, who made everything. I stretched out the heavens by myself, And I spread out the earth. Who was with me?” Isaiah 44:24
“Listen to me, O Jacob, and Israel, whom I called! I am he; I am the first, and I am the last. My hand laid the foundation of the earth, and my right hand spread out the heavens; when I call to them, they stand forth together.” Isaiah 48:12-13
“I said: “O my God, Do not do away with me in the middle of my life, You whose years span all generations. Long ago you laid the foundations of the earth, And the heavens are the work of your hands. They will perish, but you will remain; Just like a garment they will all wear out.Just like clothing you will replace them, and they will pass away. But you are the same, and your years will never end.” Psalm 102:24-27
These Old Testament verses declare that the LORD is the creator and God. They emphasize that God was alone in the act of creation (Isaiah 44:24). But the New Testament says that Jesus is the creator.
“All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made.” John 1:3
Hebrews 1:10-12 actually quotes Psalm 102:24-27, which is a prayer addressing God, and says that it was written in reference to Jesus.
“But of the Son he says, […] and, “you laid the foundations of the earth, And the heavens are the work of your hands. They will perish, but you will remain; Just like a garment they will all wear out.Just like clothing you will replace them, and they will pass away. But you are the same, and your years will never end.”” Hebrews 1:8, 10-12
“For by him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things were created through him and for him. And he is before all things, and in him all things hold together.” Colossians 1:16-17
The author of Romans says that all things were created for God.
“O the depth of God’s riches and wisdom and knowledge! How unsearchable his judgments are and beyond tracing out his ways are! For “who has come to know the LORD’s mind, or who has become his adviser?” Or, “who has first given to him, so that it must be repaid to him?” Because from him and by him and for him are all things. To him be the glory forever. Amen.” Romans 11:33-36
But all things were created by Jesus and for Jesus. Therefore, Jesus is God.
“For by him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things were created through him and for him. And he is before all things, and in him all things hold together.” Colossians 1:16-17
Jesus is Eternal
Hebrews chapter 7 states that Jesus is eternal, like God. The author of Hebrews makes a comparison to the Old Testament Priest-King Melchizedek.
“For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the Most High God, met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him, and to him Abraham apportioned a tenth part of everything. He is first, by translation of his name, king of righteousness, and then he is also king of Salem, that is, king of peace. He is without father or mother or genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but resembling the Son of God he continues a priest forever.” Hebrews 7:1-3
Melchizedek was not literally without a genealogy, but He appeared in the Genesis account out of nowhere as if he were. In this way, he resembles the Son of God who in His Divine nature is without genealogy. Being eternal is a divine characteristic. Not only is Jesus eternal, He is changeless, another Divine characteristic. Compare the following verses:
“For I am the LORD; I do not change.” Malachi 3:6
“Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today, and forever.” Hebrews 13:8
Jesus is Worshipped
God is a jealous God, who does not share His glory, and He demands exclusive worship.
“I am the LORD. That is my name; I give my glory to no one else.” Isaiah 42:8
“for you shall worship no other god, for the Lord, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God.” Exodus 34:14
But Jesus receives equal worship along with God the Father.
“You are worthy, Lord our God, to receive the glory and the honor and the power, because you created all things, and because of your will they came into existence and were created.” Revelation 4:11
““The Lamb who was slaughtered is worthy to receive the power and riches and wisdom and strength and honor and glory and blessing.” And I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and underneath the earth and on the sea, and all the things in them, saying: “To the One sitting on the throne and to the Lamb be the blessing and the honor and the glory and the might forever and ever.”The four living creatures were saying: “Amen!” and the elders fell down and worshipped.” Revelation 5:12-14
“For the Father judges no one at all, but he has entrusted all the judging to the Son, so that all may honor the Son just as they honor the Father. Whoever does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent him.” John 5:22-23
“For this very reason, God exalted him to a superior position and kindly gave him the name that is above every name, so that in the name of Jesus every knee should bend—of those in heaven and those on earth and those under the ground and every tongue should openly acknowledge that Jesus Christ is Lord to the glory of God the Father.” Philippians 2:9-11
“No, but go on growing in the undeserved kindness and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be the glory both now and to the day of eternity. Amen.” 2 Peter 2:18
Jesus is All Knowing
To be all knowing is an attribute of God alone.
“then may you hear from the heavens, your dwelling place, and may you forgive and take action; and reward each one according to all his ways, for you know his heart (you alone truly know every human heart), so that they may fear you all the days they live on the land that you gave to our forefathers.” 1 Kings 8:39-40
“The heart is more treacherous than anything else and is desperate. Who can know it? I, the LORD, am searching the heart, Examining the innermost thoughts* (kidneys), To give to each one according to his ways, According to the fruitage of his works.” Jeremiah 17:9-10
But Jesus has all knowledge, and knows what is in the human heart.
“Carefully concealed in him are all the treasures of wisdom and of knowledge.” Colossians 2:3
“But Jesus would not entrust himself to them because he knew them all and because he did not need to have anyone bear witness about man, for he knew what was in man.” John 2:24-25
“His disciples said: “See! Now you are speaking plainly and are not using comparisons. Now we know that you know all things and you do not need to have anyone question you. By this we believe that you came from God.” Jesus answered them: “Do you believe now? Look! The hour is coming, indeed, it has come, when each one of you will be scattered to his own house and you will leave me alone. But I am not alone, because the Father is with me.” John 16:29-32
“He said to him a third time: “Simon son of John, do you have love me?” Peter became grieved that he asked him the third time: “Do you have love me?” So he said to him: “Lord, you know all things; you know that I love you.” Jesus said to him: “Feed my little sheep. Most truly I say to you, when you were younger, you used to clothe yourself and walk about where you wanted. But when you grow old, you will stretch out your hands and another man will clothe you and carry you where you do not wish.” He said this to indicate by what sort of death he would glorify God. After he said this, he said to him: “Continue following me.”” John 21:17-19
“To the angel of the congregation in Thyatiʹra write: These are the things that the Son of God says, the one who has eyes like a fiery flame and whose feet are like fine copper: […] And I will kill her children with deadly plague, so that all the congregations will know that I am the one who searches the innermost thoughts* (kidneys) and hearts, and I will give to you individually according to your deeds.” Revelation 2:18, 32
In the Old Testament God appeared and spoke to Moses and Elijah on mountains, although they could not look on His face.
“Moses said, “Please show me your glory.” And he said, “I will make all my goodness pass before you and will proclaim before you my name ‘The LORD.’ And I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy. But,” he said, “you cannot see my face, for man shall not see me and live.” And the Lord said, “Behold, there is a place by me where you shall stand on the rock, and while my glory passes by I will put you in a cleft of the rock, and I will cover you with my hand until I have passed by. Then I will take away my hand, and you shall see my back, but my face shall not be seen.”” Exodus 33:18-23
Note that God “passed by” Moses. The same words are used to describe God’s appearance before Elijah. Elijah covers his face before going out to speak to God. He can’t look on the face of God.
“The Lord said, “Go out and stand on the mountain in the presence of the Lord, for the Lord is about to pass by.” Then a great and powerful wind tore the mountains apart and shattered the rocks before the Lord, but the Lord was not in the wind. After the wind there was an earthquake, but the Lord was not in the earthquake. After the earthquake came a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire. And after the fire came a gentle whisper.When Elijah heard it, he pulled his cloak over his face and went out and stood at the mouth of the cave. Then a voice said to him, “What are you doing here, Elijah?””1 Kings 19:11-13
Jesus took Peter, James and John up a mountain and revealed his glory to them, and Moses and Elijah appeared speaking with Him, and God the Father spoke.
“After six days Jesus took with him Peter, James and John the brother of James, and led them up a high mountain by themselves. There he was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and his clothes became as white as the light. Just then there appeared before them Moses and Elijah, talking with Jesus. Peter said to Jesus, “Lord, it is good for us to be here. If you wish, I will put up three shelters—one for you, one for Moses and one for Elijah.” While he was still speaking, a bright cloud covered them, and a voice from the cloud said, “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased. Listen to him!” When the disciples heard this, they fell facedown to the ground, terrified. But Jesus came and touched them. “Get up,” he said. “Don’t be afraid.” When they looked up, they saw no one except Jesus.” Matthew 17:1-8
The glory of God, and His appearance to the Hebrew people, is often associated with light, fire, and a covering cloud throughout the Old Testament (cf. Exodus 13:1, 24:17, 40:35, Num. 16:42, Deut. 5:24). So too, in the Transfiguration, Jesus’s face shines like the sun, his clothes become white as light, and a bright cloud overshadows the disciples. This is a Revelation of Jesus’ Divinity on the mountain. Because Jesus was God made man, they could see Him face to face. The presence of Moses and Elijah emphasize the fact that this is a revelation of Divine glory.
“Whoever has seen me has seen the Father.” John 14:9
There is another place where Jesus “meant to pass by” as God passed before Moses and Elijah.
“And when evening came, the boat was out on the sea, and he was alone on the land. And he saw that they were making headway painfully, for the wind was against them. And about the fourth watch of the night he came to them, walking on the sea. He meant to pass by them, but when they saw him walking on the sea they thought it was a ghost, and cried out, for they all saw him and were terrified. But immediately he spoke to them and said, “Take heart; it is I. Do not be afraid.” And he got into the boat with them, and the wind ceased.” Mark 6:47:51
What is usually translated, “it is I” was literally “Ego eimi.” Which is literally, “I am.” Jesus revealed His glory in a more subtle way, showing His power over nature, and He used the Divine Name to reveal Himself.
Objection: “The Father is greater than I.”
Some argue that Jesus can not be God or equal with God, because He said;
“You heard me say to you, ‘I am going away, and I will come to you.’ If you loved me, you would have rejoiced, because I am going to the Father, for the Father is greater than I. And now I have told you before it takes place, so that when it does take place you may believe.” John 14:28-29
Jesus is telling the disciples to rejoice that He is going away, because He goes to the Father. This is a return to His original position of equality with God.
“Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus, who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped, but emptied himself, by taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men. And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross.” Philippians 2:5-8
When Jesus ascends to the Father, He is returning to a position of equality. As the Divine Son, He is equal to God. In his humanity on earth, He was in a lower position. But now, even in His humanity, Jesus has been exalted to a point of equality with God.
“This Jesus God raised up, and of that we all are witnesses. Being therefore exalted at the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this that you yourselves are seeing and hearing.” Acts 2:32-33
“Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.” Philippians 2:10-11
To sit at God’s right hand is a position of equality. If Jesus has the name above every name, He shares the name of the LORD God.
Objection: Only the Father Knows
Speaking of the last judgement and Jesus’ own return at the end of time, He says;
“But concerning that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father only.” Matthew 24:36
“But concerning that day or that hour, no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father.” Mark 13:32
The standard answer to this is that Jesus has two natures. Consider the chart below.
Jesus is Divine
Jesus is Human
Carefully concealed in him are all the treasures of wisdom and of knowledge.
But concerning that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father only.
“Lord, you know all things; you know that I love you.”
But concerning that day or that hour, no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father.
All that the Father has is mine John 16:15
For by him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things were created through him and for him. And he is before all things, and in him all things hold together. Colossians 1:16-17
And [the child] Jesus increased in wisdom and in stature and in favor with God and man.
Colossians 1:17 and Luke 2:52 show that Jesus must have two natures. How can he grow in wisdom if He created all things and all things are held together in him? Colossians shows He has all possible knowledge, because all things were created and maintain their existence in Him. Luke shows that He became fully human and could experience growth and learning. Consider Joseph in his carpenter shop instructing the creator of the universe in how to craft wood! That is the humility and the mystery of God made man.
The Greek Church Father St. Basil puts forward a linguistic argument for why Matthew 24:36 and Mark 13:32 don’t mean what they appear to say in translation. St. Basil argues that the meaning of this phrase is actually ambiguous (much like the English word “cleave” which can have two opposite meanings). A legitimate translation is, “but for the Father” meaning that this knowledge that the Son (and possibly angels) have of that day would not be accessible “except for the Father’s revelation.” Most Church Father’s interpreted it simply as referring to two separate natures, but St. Basil’s observation is noteworthy and grammatically sound.
Objection: Only God is good
Is Jesus denying His Divinity in the exchange below?
“And behold, a man came up to him, saying, “Teacher, what good deed must I do to have eternal life?” And he said to him, “Why do you ask me about what is good? There is only one who is good. If you would enter life, keep the commandments.” He said to him, “Which ones?” And Jesus said, “You shall not murder, You shall not commit adultery, You shall not steal, You shall not bear false witness, Honor your father and mother, and, You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” The young man said to him, “All these I have kept. What do I still lack?” Jesus said to him, “If you would be perfect, go, sell what you possess and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me.” When the young man heard this he went away sorrowful, for he had great possessions.” Matthew 19:16-22
“And a ruler asked him, “Good Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?” And Jesus said to him, “Why do you call me good? No one is good except God alone. You know the commandments: ‘Do not commit adultery, Do not murder, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Honor your father and mother.’” And he said, “All these I have kept from my youth.” When Jesus heard this, he said to him, “One thing you still lack. Sell all that you have and distribute to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me.” But when he heard these things, he became very sad, for he was extremely rich.” Luke 18:18-23
No one is good except God, so why do you call me “Good Teacher?” Is Jesus denying His Divinity? Remember, this is the same Jesus who says, “ I am the Good Shepherd.” John 10:11. For the Jews, God was their shepherd, recall Psalm 23 “The LORD is my shepherd…” and Ezekiel 34:15, “I myself will be the shepherd of my sheep, and I myself will make them lie down, declares the LORD God.”
If “good teacher” is a title only appropriate for God, “I am the Good Shepherd” is even more so only appropriate for God.
So was Jesus claiming to not be a Good Teacher? No. In fact, in this passage he claims to be more than a teacher. Jesus answers the question by saying to keep the commandments. The man answers he has kept these since his youth. Jesus responds saying he lacks something (In Matthew’s account the man asks Jesus what he is still lacking. Also, remember that Jesus left out the commandments about honoring God). Jesus tells him to sell everything he has and then come follow Me. He had kept the commandments about how to treat our fellow man perfectly, but Jesus tells him that in order to be perfect, He must follow Jesus unreservedly. This is something Jews would reserve for God, who told them;
“You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might.” Deuteronomy 6:5
So in fact, Jesus is not denying His goodness or Divinity. He is getting the man to think about what He is saying. He ends up asking the man to give Him total and unreserved devotion, something which belongs to God. These texts actually serve to demonstrate Jesus’ Divinity.
Letter to the Romans
Paul calls Jesus, “the Christ, who is God over all, blessed forever.”
“I am speaking the truth in Christ—I am not lying; my conscience bears me witness in the Holy Spirit— that I have great sorrow and unceasing anguish in my heart. For I could wish that I myself were accursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my brothers, my kinsmen according to the flesh. They are Israelites, and to them belong the adoption, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the worship, and the promises. To them belong the patriarchs, and from their race, according to the flesh, is the Christ, who is God over all, blessed forever. Amen. But it is not as though the word of God has failed. For not all who are descended from Israel belong to Israel, and not all are children of Abraham because they are his offspring, but “Through Isaac shall your offspring be named.”” Romans 9:1-7
Some translators who seek to deny the Divinity of Jesus translate it this way;
“To them the forefathers belong, and from them the Christ descended according to the flesh. God, who is over all, be praised forever. Amen.”
The first translation is admitted by scholars to be the most natural rendering. A survey of Bible translations demonstrates this. But the second rendering is possible. Since the earliest Greek manuscripts lack any punctuation, we have to rely on context to know for sure. We can look to the rest of Romans for further context.
In Romans chapter 1 we read,
“Therefore God gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to the dishonoring of their bodies among themselves, because they exchanged the truth about God for a lie and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever! Amen.” Romans 1:24-25
Here Paul uses nearly the same expression, “who is blessed forever! Amen.” The phrase refers to the antecedent noun, “the Creator.” If the phrase is used the same way in Romans 9:5 it refers to Christ as the antecedent noun.
Romans 10 applies an Old Testament statement about the LORD God to Jesus Christ.
“And it shall come to pass that everyone who calls on the name of the LORD shall be saved.” Joel 2:32
“if you confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For with the heart one believes and is justified, and with the mouth one confesses and is saved. For the Scripture says, “Everyone who believes in him will not be put to shame.” For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, bestowing his riches on all who call on him. For “everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.”” Romans 10:9-12
“Everyone who believes in him will not be put to shame.” is a quote from Isaiah 28:16, which references “the stone which the builders rejected.” In the Acts 4:11 Peter says this verse is about Jesus, not the Father. Therefore we can be certain that the immediately following quote in Romans, “everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.” is also being applied to Jesus.
For St. Paul, Jesus is the LORD, who is God over all.
The First and the Last
It seems appropriate to conclude with a final proof of the Divinity of Jesus Christ taken from the last book of the Bible, Revelation. The Almighty LORD God is the First and the Last. Jesus is the Almighty LORD God, the First & The Last.
“Who has performed and done this, calling the generations from the beginning?I, the Lord, the first, and with the last; I am he.” Isaiah 41:4
“You are my witnesses,” declares the LORD,“and my servant whom I have chosen, that you may know and believe me and understand that I am he. Before me no god was formed, nor shall there be any after me. Isaiah 43:10
Note that, “Before me no god was formed, nor shall there be any after me” means that Jesus cannot be a lesser “god” or a created “god.” So John 1:1-3 must mean that the Word is truly God, otherwise, God would be a liar.
“Thus says the LORD, the King of Israel and his Redeemer, the LORD of hosts: “I am the first and I am the last; besides me there is no god.” Isaiah 44:6
““I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God, “who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.”” Revelation 1:8
“When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. But he laid his right hand on me, saying, “Fear not, I am the first and the last, and the living one. I died, and behold I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of Death and Hades.” Revelation 1:17-18
“Behold, I am coming soon, bringing my recompense with me, to repay each one for what he has done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.” Revelation 22:12-13
“I, Jesus, have sent my angel to testify to you about these things for the churches. I am the root and the descendant of David, the bright morning star.” Revelation 22:16
“He who testifies to these things says, “Surely I am coming soon.” Amen. Come, Lord Jesus!” Revelation 22:20
The orthodox Christian teaching is that there is only one God.
God is three distinct persons who share one Divine nature.
The Father is God, the Son is God, the Holy Spirit is God.
The Father is not the Son, the Son is not the Father, and the Holy Spirit is not the Father and is not the Son.
The Son became a man in time. The Son has two complete natures, His original Divine nature and His human nature which He assumed (took) in time.
Jesus is one Divine Person, with a Divine nature and a human nature.